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创造性翻译加修改及美国科学家审核申请美国顶级文理学院的Graded Essay 范例
来源于:本站 添加日期:2009-7-3

创造性翻译加修改润色及美国科学家编辑审核申请美国一所顶级文理学院Liberal Arts CollegeGraded Essay 范例

该客户已于2009年春获得Brown University等美国顶级名校的录取。

注:[]:为客户原文

[]:为海戴的创造性翻译加修改润色稿

[]:为海戴的美国科学家编辑在海戴的创造性翻译加修改润色稿的基础上所进行的审核和润色稿

 

[]:庄子思想中西方哲学命题的影子

[]Signs of Western Philosophical Propositions in Zhuangzi’s Thought

[]Signs of Western Philosophical Propositions in Zhuangzi’s Thought

 

[]:(第一段)《齐物志》记载,从前有一天,庄周梦见自己变成了蝴蝶,翩翩起舞。自己非常快乐,悠然自得,不知道自己是庄周。一会儿梦醒了,却是僵卧在床的庄周。不知是庄周做梦变成了蝴蝶呢,还是蝴蝶做梦变成了庄周呢?

[]It is depicted in Zhuangzi’s influential essay Equality of Things that Zhuangzi once dreamt of transforming to a butterfly tripping the light fantastic. In this dreamland of him, he was very happy, carefree and content without knowing that he was Zhuangzi. Shortly after it, he found himself awakened, solid and unmistakable. Then, he was perplexed by the question that if it was him who changed into the butterfly in his dream, or it was the butterfly who dreamt of becoming him.

[]In his influential essay Equality of Things Zhuangzi recounts how he once dreamt of transforming into a butterfly and tripping the light fantastic. In this dreamland, he was very happy, carefree and content without knowing that he was Zhuangzi. Shortly thereafter, he found himself awakened, solid and unmistakable. Then, he was perplexed by the following question. Had he changed into the butterfly in his dream, or was it the butterfly who dreamt of becoming Zhuangzi?

 

[]:(第二段)这则寓言是表现庄子齐物思想的名篇。庄子认为人们如果能打破生死、物我的界限,则无往而不快乐。同时也提出一个哲学论点:人不可能确切地区分真实和虚幻。这是一个古老的古希腊命题, 包含一个朴素的哲学观点:太阳下没有新鲜的事物。This discussion however lasts through the history, till today in the east and in the west.

[]This parable reflects Zhuangzi’s thought that things are equal. He believed that if man can cross boundaries between life and death and between other things and himself, he will have unlimited happiness and joys. In the meanwhile, this fable promoted a philosophical idea, that is, man can never discriminate accurately the real world and phantoms. This idea, actually, can be comparable to an ancient Greek proposition “There is nothing new under the sun”. And, the reason lies in that everything is alike. In fact, similar arguments have traversed the history and prevailed both in the east and in the west.

[]This parable reflects Zhuangzi’s belief in the underlying equality of seemingly disparate things. He believed that if man can cross boundaries between life and death and between external things and himself, he will have unlimited happiness and joy. This fable also promoted a philosophical idea, that is, man can never discriminate accurately between reality and illusion. This idea, actually, can be related to an ancient Greek proposition “There is nothing new under the sun”. The connection is that everything shares the same underlying oneness of being. In fact, similar arguments have appeared throughout history, both in the east and in the west.

 

[]:(第三段)笛卡尔 我思故我在就是欧洲版的庄周梦蝶”;还记得阅读过的那本翡翠色封面《苏菲的世界》,在故事的不断繁衍中,主人公苏菲蓦然发现,自己只是少校为女儿生日而准备的一份被书写的礼物; The Matrix series describes a dream where all the senses and feelings are only电子信号作用于大脑上某一区域所产生的幻觉, waking up people’s interest in philosophy; Someday in the future, the family cinema might actually provide the virtual reality as real as a real world.

[]:(第四段)周公梦蝶,梦醒发问。通过前面的梦他明白了,庄周发问,也是一个梦,正如我们现在的所看,所想也是一个梦,只不过这个梦是我们自己设的。庄周因为跳出了蝴蝶的梦境,才明白了自己彼时是在梦中; 我们不觉得此刻是梦,因为我们还在梦中。

[]Taken Sophie’s World, for example, I can always recall how, after a series of episodes, Sophie found abruptly that she was only a written gift prepared by the major for his daughter. For another instance, the Matrix movie series delivered the concept that all senses and feelings in a dream are brought about by influences of electronic signals on the cerebra. Then, can these senses and feelings reversely produce electronic signals on a cerebrum? With an effort to disentangle these philosophical mysteries, someday in the future, family films might place their audiences in virtual worlds.

[]In recent history, René Descartes’ “I think, therefore I am” can be regarded as a European version of Zhuangzi’s butterfly dream. In the dream, Zhuangzi thought, and therefore he was the butterfly. After escaping the dream, he thought again, and was aware that he was dreaming before. From this experience, he too hit upon the answer that his questioning was also a dream. It is like that what we see and think at this moment is a dream. The only difference is that this dream is designed by us. We don’t realize that we are daydreaming just because we are not wakened up.

[]Take Sophie’s World, for example, I can always recall how, after a series of episodes, Sophie found abruptly that she was only a written gift prepared by the major for his daughter. For another instance, the Matrix movie series delivered the concept that all senses and feelings in a dream are brought about by influences of electronic signals on the cerebra. Then, can these senses and feelings reversely produce electronic signals on a cerebrum? As a byproduct of an effort to disentangle these philosophical mysteries, someday in the future, family films might place their audiences in virtual worlds.

[]In recent history, René Descartes’ “I think, therefore I am” can be regarded as a European version of Zhuangzi’s butterfly dream. In the dream, Zhuangzi thought, and therefore he was the butterfly. After escaping the dream, he thought again, and was aware that he was dreaming before. From this experience, he too hit upon the answer that his questioning was also a dream. It is possible that what we see and think at this moment is a dream. We don’t realize that we are dreaming just because we are not in a wakened state.

 

[]:(第五段)Just like the hint of the Matrix,其实就个人、社会、宇宙、乃至宇宙之外的空间,每一层面都有其特定的Matrix 每个人都是 Architect,设计着自己得意的Matrix(自己的生活轨迹、全家人的生活历程、作为公司老板设计着公司发展的方向以及员工的升迁、软件工程师设计着虚拟的动画游戏);人们同时又受控于更高层面Matrix即社会发展规律的控制;而社会的发展又属于自然规则的一部分;那么自然就是另外一个更高层面的 Matrix;于是宇宙乃至宇宙以外的运行都有其规则.那么天外天结构的真正Architect又是谁?也许上帝正站在更高的苍穹上狂笑呢吧。

[]As hinted by the Matrix series, any individual, society, universe or space that exceeds the universe has its specific matrix. A person is his own “architect” who designs his favorite matrix that involves his life paths, or family experience, or the company’s future development and personnel management if he is the boss, or simulated animated computer games if he is a software engineer. At the same, he is controlled by a higher level of matrix – the laws governing the development of the human society. Similarly, these rules must abide by the law of nature. Then, we can ask by analog that who is the “architect” of the field that is out of the universe. Considering this question, maybe now God is laughing wildly above the vault of heaven.

[]In the Matrix series, any individual, society, universe or space that exists has its specific matrix. A person is his own “architect” who designs his favorite matrix that involves his life paths, or family experience, or the company’s future development and personnel management if he is the boss, or simulated animated computer games if he is a software engineer. At the same, he is controlled by a higher level of matrix – the laws governing the development of the human society. Similarly, these rules must abide by the law of nature. Then, we can ask by analogy, who is the “architect” of the laws that govern the universe. Considering this question, perhaps now God is laughing wildly above the vault of heaven.

 

[]:(第六段)“人类一思考,上帝就发笑。因为人们愈思索,真理离他越远。 因为人们从来就跟他想像中的自己不一样.” 这句如今广为流传的警句道出了昆德拉对生命和整个人类世界的全部感悟,因为人的自作聪明,也因为人自身相比于大自然之下的渺小和微不足道。

[]This is exactly what is conveyed in a fine Jewish proverb: Man thinks, God laughs. Milan Kundera’s explanation to this intricate adage is as follows. “Because man thinks and the truth escapes him. Because the more men think, the more one man's thought diverges from another's. And finally, because man is never what he thinks he is.” Precisely, this widespread interpretation puts across this prestigious Fresh writer’s overall comprehension of life and the whole human world, that is, because we, human beings are wiseacres, and because we are so minute so as to be negligible, as compared to nature or the universe.

[]This is exactly what is conveyed in a fine Jewish proverb: Man thinks, God laughs. Milan Kundera’s explanation to this deep adage is as follows. “Because man thinks and the truth escapes him. Because the more men think, the more one man's thought diverges from another's. And finally, because man is never what he thinks he is.” This well known interpretation puts across this prestigious writer’s overall comprehension of life and the human condition, that is, because we, human beings are wiseacres, and because we are so minute so as to be negligible, as compared to nature or the universe.

 

[]:(第七段)相比之下,庄子不仅崇尚自然,敬畏天地,而且主张人们遵从自然规则,人道要体现和践行天道。“死生,命也“代表了庄子对于世界的理解, 对于天和道的理解,也可以说明为什么庄子采取了一种顺应天和道的态度。庄子认为天下万物都有各自的本性,有自己发展变化的特定规律。人们正确的做法是顺应它们各自的本性,遵循它们各自的规律,不要刻意妄为。

[]With respect to standing in awe of nature and the universe, Zhuangzi had put forward this idea two thousand years ago. He advocated that people should conform to the order of nature. “Death or living, predetermined fate.” This represents his apprehension of the world, nature and its law. It also explained why he adopted an attitude of obeying the rules of nature. It is because of the belief that everything in the world has its own inbeing and immanent developmental patterns that he suggested that the right behavior of a person is to comply with the nature and discipline of a matter without violations.

[]Two thousand years ago, standing in awe of nature and the universe, Zhuangzi put forward this idea. He advocated that people should conform to the order of nature. “Death or living, predetermined fate.” This represents his apprehension of the world, nature and its law. It also explained why he adopted an attitude of obeying the rules of nature. It is because of the belief that everything in the world has its own being and immanent developmental patterns that he suggested that the right behavior of a person is to comply with the nature and discipline of a matter without violations.

 

[]:(第八段)庄子认为,世上没有无用之物。《庄子·逍遥游》记有这样一个故事:战国时期名家学派的惠施对庄子说:我有一个特别大的葫芦,这个葫芦大得能装下二三百公斤的东西。可是,如果用它来盛水,它不够坚固;如果锯开当水瓢用,又没有那么大的水缸可以放得开它。因为它太大了没有用途,我把它打碎了。惠施实际是想用大葫芦的大而无用,来暗喻庄子的学问虽然博大却不实用。庄子反驳说:你的笨拙在于不善于使用大的东西啊!既然你有那么大的葫芦,为什么不用绳子把它系在腰上当做小舟,自由自在地浮游于江湖之上,反而发愁它太大呢?你真是不开窍呀!

[]Hence, owing to its nature and inherent principle, nothing in the world is useless, even if it’s alike, as demonstrated by Zhuangzi in his another well-known essay A Happy Excursion. Hueitse, the Prime Minister in Liang State, told Zhuangzi that he had a gourd with ten bushel capacity. Had it been used to hold water, it would have been too heavy to lift. But, had it been cut in half for ladles, there would have been no water cylinder big enough to hold the ladles. Thus, he had to break it up because it was too big to be useful. By this parable, Hueitse indicated that Zhuangzi’s vast knowledge was useless. However, Zhuangzi rebutted this presumption that Hueitse was too clumsy to be able to use large things, by asking him why he didn’t make a canoe of it and float about over rivers and lakes.

[]Hence, owing to its nature and inherent principle, nothing in the world is useless, as demonstrated by Zhuangzi in his another well-known essay A Happy Excursion. Hueitse, the Prime Minister in Liang State, told Zhuangzi that he had a gourd with ten bushel capacity. Had it been used to hold water, it would have been too heavy to lift. But, had it been cut in half for ladles, there would have been no water cylinder big enough to hold the ladles. Thus, he had to destroy it because it was too big to be useful. By this parable, Hueitse indicated that Zhuangzi’s vast knowledge was useless. However, Zhuangzi rebutted this presumption that Hueitse was too clumsy to be able to use large things, by asking him why he didn’t make a canoe of it and float about over rivers and lakes.

 

[]:(第九段)2000 years later, the German philosopher said: “What is rational is real, what is real is rational.” 世上没有无用之物,一切都有用处,关键在于我们能不能顺着他的固有天性来运用。圣经里的魔鬼撒旦也有用处:测试一个认可信任的程度。所以,尽管他作恶多端,上帝仍让他存在。

[]Similarly, 2000 years later, Hegel stated: “All that is real is rational; and all that is rational is real.” In this regard, even the devil is useful if it does exist. At least, it can be used to test the loyalty of a Christian to God. Hence, even if it is notorious, God allows it to be itself. Likewise, it can be concluded that the key to development is whether or not people can practice and apply things according to their nature. Hence, this thought of Hegal resonates with Zhuangzi’s.

[]Similarly, 2000 years later, Hegel stated: “All that is real is rational; and all that is rational is real.” In this regard, even the devil is useful if it does exist. At least, it can be used to test the loyalty of a Christian to God. Hence, even if it is evil, God allows it to be itself. Likewise, it can be concluded that the key to development is whether or not people can practice and apply things according to their nature. Hence, this thought of Hegal resonates with Zhuangzi’s.

 

[]:(第十段)庄子’s life philosophy might be a little negative and passive when modern citizens see it, but if we understand it with a positive mind, it still holds its practical meaning. 在现代生活中,面对生活的压力,我们应重新认识自己,活在生活之外看生活。认识到人类的渺小,使自己面对繁华的生活游刃有余。“吾生也有涯,而知也无涯”(《庄子·内篇·养生主第三》)体现的是一种懂得取舍的达观态度。

[]For contemporary citizens, Zhuangzi’s life philosophy might be a little negative and passive. But if we reflect it with a positive mind, it still holds practical meanings. In this era, when facing increasing living pressure, we, ordinary people, should reevaluate ourselves, and see life from the point that is beyond our life. We should also be aware of the insignificance of us so as to live with ease and skill. “Life is limited, but study is limitless.” This famous statement of Zhuangzi incarnates perfectly the inspiring and philosophical attitude of knowing when to hold fast and when to let go.

[]For contemporary citizens, Zhuangzi’s life philosophy might be a little negative and passive. But if we reflect on it with a positive mind, it still holds practical meaning. In this era, when facing increasing pressure in our lives, we, ordinary people, should reevaluate ourselves, and see life from the point that is beyond our life. We should also be aware of our insignificance so as to live with ease and skill. “Life is limited, but study is limitless.” This famous statement of Zhuangzi perfectly embodies the inspiring and philosophical attitude of knowing when to hold fast and when to let go.

 

[]:(第十一段)人的生命是有限的,但是思想的影响是跨越时空、地域和界限的。庄子的思想之所以能流传至今,and can apply to so broad a range of areas, 也正由于此。

[]Life is indeed limited. Nevertheless, bright ideas can transcend time, space, or any other boundaries. It is right the reason for Zhuangzi’s thought to endure through the ages and to be practiced widely and extensively, so to speak.

[]Life is indeed limited. Nevertheless, bright ideas can transcend time, space, or any other boundaries. This is why Zhuangzi’s thought has endured through the ages and his ideas are still widely followed.

 

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